ShoutMix chat widget

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Ontology-Based Adaptive E-learning System Modeling in Semantic Learning Web

As information increases explosively, the diversity and heterogeneity
of knowledge in different domains make it difficult to represent and
share knowledge. Meanwhile, the adaptive learning pattern is favored
by more and more learners, and how to acquire the knowledge in need
from complex knowledge bases and construct personal knowledge system
has recently become a hot spot of research.

Semantic learning web, which combines semantic web and web-based
education technologies, shed lights on the development of modem
education, and provide learners more efficient and high-quality
intelligent services. This paper, which based on semantic learning
web, semantically described domain knowledge and user pattern using
Ontology technology, presented the architecture of ontology-based
adaptive e-learning system (OntoAES) , provided the platform for
knowledge acquiring and sharing, and also provided learners with
effective learning services based on personal knowledge spaces and

Firstly, various theory models of teaching and learning processes were
studied; the definition and description of learning behaviors in those
theory models were analyzed; based on different characteristics of the
learning behaviors, the features and requirements of the adaptive
e-learning process was studied in order to provide the theory
architecture and behavior model for the adaptive e-learning system;
how to present knowledge space was studied, domain knowledge model and
user knowledge space model were established.

Secondly, the features of domain knowledge was studied; as the
complexity and diversity of domain knowledge and the lack of ontology
engineering technology for domain experts make it difficult to develop
domain ontology, the method to establish ontology based on knowledge
engineering was proposed; the method to extract domain knowledge
concepts, define concepts hierarchical structure and construct the
relationship models were presented. The construction process to build
domain ontology was simplified.

Thirdly, computer science was choose as the research domain, based on
the domain knowledge space model, the knowledge taxonomy architecture
and concept sets were constructed, and domain knowledge ontology was
built. On the basis of E-learning standards, learning resources
description Ontology was established, which provided more semantics to
learning resources description model and more space to be expanded.

Fourthly, the user information model and user knowledge space model
were studied, the user model Ontology was built. The user information
sub-Ontology to describe user's basic information, the user preference
sub-Ontology to describe user's preference information, user
performance sub-Ontology to describe user's performance information
along with the user competency Ontology to describe user's learning
skills were established respectively. The semantic association among
user model ontology, domain knowledge ontology and learning resources
description Ontology was analyzed. A well-modeled basis was build for
the adaptive e-learning system.

Finally, the functional modules and system architecture of the
ontology-based adaptive e-learning system (OntoAES) were presented,
the correlation and application pattern between various Ontology and
system modules were studied. The adaptive e-learning steps and process
of the OntoAES were discussed. Based on analysis of user learning
behavior records, the analysis and definition of the potential
learning resource relation pattern based on users' use of log, the
relation model and user preference model were acquired through
information extraction and data mining technologies. Learning path
information in Domain knowledge and user preference information could
be refreshed; the model and method this paper presents were verified.

The main contributions are as follows:

1) Present the relation model of knowledge space, and method to build
domain knowledge Ontology based on knowledge engineering;
2) establish the Ontology of computer science domain and user model
Ontology, present the architecture of the Ontology-based adaptive
e-learning system;
3) Define the adaptive e-learning rules based on Ontology, build the
matching model between user preference ontology and study resource
description ontology, study resource relation model and preference
model based on data using.

This paper provides the basis and guidance for establishing the
ontology of the Education Semantic Web, and design and building of the
adaptive e-learning system. The future work includes the perfection of
the ontology and the function of the adaptive e-learning system, the
study of the matching model in ontology as well as the rules of
adaptive e-learning based on ontology, and to provide learners an
intelligent and efficient learning system.

Read More......

Using Flash Drives in the Music Industry

Flash drives are often viewed as useful portable devices that can
store and transfer high volumes of files to other devices. Due to
their low costs and high capacities, they are widely used by all
classes of computer users. These compact devices became so popular
that people are less aligned to buy CDs and DVDs unless they are
purely for backup purposes. The music industry has realised this as
well and several bands are ditching the CDs as well by creatively
releasing their latest albums on flash drives.

This can simply be achieved by copying the tracks at their highest
quality into the drive, complete with track information and the drive
is ready to go. This is beneficial to both the fans and the artists
themselves. Here are some reasons why the use of flash drives in the
music industry should be welcomed:

Reduced Piracy

Music artists and record labels have been fighting piracy long and
hard, yet they still suffer from their songs being pirated even before
they are released. This is because most people cannot see any benefits
of purchasing the audio CD unless they are collectors. With the album
released on a flash drive, fans can view the specialized flash drive
as a 'freebie' that is unlike any standard USB flash drive.

Better Marketing

A music store is filled with tons of albums that compete for selection
by using their album art as the front end. Now artists can go beyond
their creative album arts and add style and funky designs to their
flash drives to make them really stand out. Nobody will resist a
uniquely styled flash drive that even has the logo. Some interesting
concepts allow people to wear their flash drive albums around their
neck or wrist.

Easier Distribution

Mp3 players have quickly replaced walkmans and discmans since they
were first introduced rendering the audio CD virtually useless. These
players have a high enough capacity to store hundreds of albums and
transferring these CD tracks to mp3 players requires a little bit of
conversion work. Most albums distribute their albums in mp3 format so
they are ready for play in any portable media device.

All the Benefits of a Flash Drive

Standard audio CDs are read-only, but flash drives can be formatted to
make way for other files. These album owners can optionally move their
tracks to another location and put other things in making it work just
like a regular flash drive that was newly purchased.

Purchased CDs often get scratched even when they are handled well and
are dust magnets as they age. Albums on flash drives get all the
protection benefits of flash drives which makes them last longer. They
are easier to store as well due to their compact size.

Album-branded drives aren't that popular as of yet since a single USB
drive is nowhere near the cost of a blank CD. But they are becoming
cheaper to produce and it is expected for more albums to be released
on these.

Read More......

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

What is Going On - Microsoft Versus TomTom

As there is only very little news available on this topic, how is one
to interpret this information. This is my first impression.

Microsoft said on Wednesday that it is steering Netherlands-based
vehicle navigation systems firm TomTom to court (and with the
International Trade Commission) for infringing on the software giant's
patented technology. The information is released by Horacio Gutierrez,
deputy general counsel of intellectual property and licensing at
Microsoft. (source Google news).

A first impression: Goliath (Microsoft) fighting against David
(TomTom). Is TomTom using Microsoft for its navigation devices? No, it
uses the Linux OS. That is the first problem in not making friend with
Microsoft. So what are they using from Microsoft? Something about
"file management, the ability to run multiple applications..." is what
reads the news. But filemanagement is that proprietary to MS or
Multi-using, multi-tasking... Is Unix or Linux not offering much
better alternatives? As there is no more information on this topic, we
have to speculate.

Microsoft tried for over a year to settle this dispute by offering a
licence agreement, but TomTom didn't respond. "Why should we," they
must have thought as they are not using their software. Software
patents is an opaque area of rules and details of intellectual
property that only lawyers can handle. But attacking your competition
this way is a means to use your brand name as a mechanism to exercise
power over others.

"TomTom is a highly respected and important company," Gutierrez said.
"We remain open to quickly resolving this situation with them through
an IP licensing agreement." This means as much as: they are small and
fast growing and a treat to us. And we have the time with us where
protecting national industry is seen as an act of heroism these
critical days. Maybe it helps in court.

The good news for TomTom is the attention they get. Yes the Stock
quote is harmed by this sort of news, but apparently they are doing a
good job otherwise Microsoft would attack them.

Read More......